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Seventy years after the end of WWII, European cinema deals with the memory of the Holocaust in ways that suggest strong ethical implications regarding the current 'Europeanization' of the Holocaust. Examining the representations of the trauma of the Holocaust in three prominent feature films that describe the post-Holocaust period (1945-65) – (1945 [Ferenc Török, Hungary, 2017], Ida [Pawel Pawlikowski, Poland, 2013] and “Murer - Anatomy Of a Trial” [Christian Frosch, Austria, 2018] – raises questions concerning the differences in how contemporary Hungarian, Polish and Austrian cinemas address their national pasts. The three films are part of very slow and ambiguous processes of acknowledging the past that entail a struggle over victimhood as well as over the issue of collaboration. In light of the inclination towards the right in contemporary Europe, along with the refugee crisis, these films' representation of “working through” processes reflect the complexity of both national and transnational memory. Analyzing various forms of memory and oblivion based on the work of Sigmund Freud, Theodore Adorno, and Pierre Nora, among others, offers a new look at the major modes of processing the past ('acting out' or melancholy vis-á-vis 'working through') as well as modes of memory. I argue that attempts to forget and distort memories, as reflected in the films, prevent not only recognition of guilt and reconciliation with the past, but also relationships characterized by affinity and honesty, between community members in the present.

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Lior Kraus (Israel) 8178
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