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The Russian management made the decision to integrate Kazakhs into the Russia on the basis of Islam. This decision was debatable because Kazakhs practiced Islam superficially. But Catherine II considered Islamic orientation of Kazakhs as a reality and had to reckon with it in order to avoid revolts. According to this approach, the Orenburg administration systematically sent local mullahs to the Kazakh steppe. During 75 years (1791-1865) the number of the mullahs sent from Orenburg increased in 39 times. Mullahs were appointed by the Orenburg's Mohammedan Spiritual Assembly, as a rule, from educated Tatars. They surely were checked on Russia's loyalty or unreliability. The mullah had to not only impart to ordinary Kazakhs of a norm of Sharia, also they were obliged to create loyal to the Power of members of society. However, in the middle of the XIX century, it became clear that this process had not only positive consequences (achievement of a certain social stability). The Muslim Kazakh society at a certain stage of the development began to go on the way of transformation into Tatars instead of remaining the Russian citizens of the Kazakh nationality. The highest elite of Kazakhs considered correct to adopt from Tatars all their habits, up to casual clothes and the leisure organization. Especially brightly it was visible in the Internal Horde. From the 1860th process of restriction of the Tatar influence in the steppe begins. Under the law of 1868, the mullah had to be appointed only from Kazakhs. However, it didn't bring serious results until the system of Muslim spiritual education wasn't created in the Kazakh lands. The research is executed with the financial support of the of the Russian Science Foundation within the RSF research project « Imperial policy of acculturation and problem of colonialism », project No. 17-18-01008.

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Sergey Lyubichankovskiy 3786
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