‘Islamic’ terrorism in the form of Al-Qaeeda was surfaced in the world after the attacks on New York’s Twin Towers on 11 September 2001; and has been since regarded the major threat to today’s world’s peace. Recently, Barcelona has also experienced the horrible effects of the terrorism. Since then many terrorists groups across the world has been appeared and disappeared. Despite the mysterious death of Osama bin Laden in May 2011, the world political powers has yet to be successful to control the terrorism. Amongst various groups, and other countries, Pakistan has widely been regarded a producer as well as a provider of ‘safe havens’ to terrorists on its soil; as Donald Trump, the US President, and the BRICS group recently showed their concerns over it. Pakistan today as a country in continuing turmoil, in which multiple centres of political and armed power compete with each other, using violence as much as due democratic processes to settle their differences. Focusing on the themes such as Terrorism, Islamic extremism, sectarianism, and the military dictatorships by the majority of authorship and media on Pakistan is one of the reasons of the thought. Although, my doctoral thesis focused on the history of nonviolent resistance movement to military rule during 1980s, yet the foreign policy regarding Afghan ‘Jihad’ did impact on the course of the movement. During 1980s which sew the seed of today’s terrorism and extremism in Pakistan, and highly supported financially and technically by the international powers such as The West led by USA and the Arab World mainly Saudi Arabia for their vested interests is going to be the major focus of this paper. The research paper is based on the oral as well as documented primary sources, extracted from various archives in USA, UK, and Pakistan.
Long abstract of your presentation
Main author information