With the climate change problem well beyond human control and increasingly accepted as the most dangerous threat to current and future generations, a paradigm shift in actions is imminent by combining mitigation and adaptation efforts while ensuring innovations, efficiency, and smartness in every front. Unlike the developed countries, the least developed countries who suffer from worst effects of climate change despite negligible contributions to global warming, have far inferior capacity to cope with adverse effects of climate change. When the National Adaptation Programmes of Action process, started almost two decades ago, has been instrumental in assessing vulnerability, identifying impacts, identifying key areas for current and future interventions and outline potential adaptation options, including the development of quick projects, they were intended for short-term responses and will not do much to avoid long-term impacts. The future adaptation plans and related actions, such as the national adaptation plan, should build on past knowledge and experience, including lessons from the implemented adaptation projects and incorporate Intended Nationally Determined Contributions as well as other scientific discourses and socio-economic development advances over last decade. In this paper, we review past and current adaptation efforts in Nepal and propose recommendations based on national and international experiences with similar socio-political, geographic and environmental realities.
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