It has been argued, quite often, that Cinema is the reflection of society. Since its inception, moving images have fascinated and influenced the spectators in diverse ways. Moreover, it is a reflection of socio-economic, political and cultural realities of a society. In Italy, Neorealism was a movement against the artificiality of the pre-war and Fascist cinema. Neorealism strived for reorientation of cinema - its purpose was to deglamorize film and to make it a relevant, purposeful and socially useful form of communication. Neorealism’s techniques and concerns were also rooted in Indian reality which had poverty, inequality, unemployment, caste and class conflict, patriarchal oppression and overarching authority of the colonial state. Filmmakers borrowed from its stylistics and also tried to adapt and modify it to suit their own styles. It can be argued that if neorealism in Italy emerged out of opposition to Fascist and escapist cinema which was away from reality then Indian neorealist cinema was also rooted in the milieu of colonial oppression. Viewed in this context, Bimal Roy’s films raised the issues of untouchability, struggle of capital and labour, position of women in society, economic inequality, poverty and unemployment. His films radiated hope and optimism and desired to wipe out problems of the society. His films like Udayer Pathey (1944), Humrahi (1945), Do Bigha Zamin (1953) Parineeta (1953), Biraj Bahu (1954), Naukri (1954) Devdas (1955), Sujata (1959), Bandini (1963), suggest that his approach was towards creating a meaningful cinema. Moreover, he contributed in the task of nation-building through his cinema. Many of his films possessed ‘dreams of new nationhood’ and depicted ideas of modernity and liberalism. Our objective would be to study his films and their encounters with neorealist aspects in the changing socio-economic, political and cultural milieu.